The correlation between PPS and other variables in the full vote model range from low to unconnected. A low positive correlation exists between PPS and feelings toward Muslim refugees as well as the attitude that immigrants are a threat to public safety. There is little to no correlation between PPS and the other variables in the model – including ideology and SSMP. This indicates that PPS is not related or connected to these other variables.


Populism Propensity Score
Ideology 0.245
Standard Survey Measures of Populism 0.097
Nationalism 0.246
Trust in Government 0.063
Overall Personal Economic Satisfaction 0.150
Leave the European Union 0.202
Immigrants are a Threat to Public Safety 0.392
Feelings toward Muslim Refugees 0.376